Young Professionals 2021

Young Professionals introduces outstanding young professionals (under 40 years of age) who are doing interesting things in cryogenics and superconductivity and who show promise of making a difference in their fields. Debuted in the Summer 2006 issue, the feature has presented many young persons whom we are proud to see have indeed lived up to that promise.

Matthew-HuntMathew Hunt, 24
My educational and professional background: I have a BS in mechanical engineering, which I completed in Fall 2018. I’m currently studying to obtain a master’s degree in material science and engineering with an estimated completion date of Spring 2021. I was also a guest undergraduate research fellow at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

How I got into cryogenics: My career in cryogenics began when I met Dr. Jacob Leachman of the Hydrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Lab during an undergraduate research seminar my junior year (2016) of my bachelor’s degree. As part of this seminar, I was able to tour various labs at Washington State University, the HYPER Lab included. Upon meeting Dr. Leachman I was immediately hooked by the excitement he radiated over the applications cryogenic engineering and research has for two of my engineering passions—renewable energy and the space industry. Following the seminar, I reached out to Dr. Leachman on potential employment with his lab and was given the opportunity to join as an undergraduate technical assistant.

My mentor and my experience with them: I have been lucky enough to have multiple mentors throughout my undergraduate and graduate careers in cryogenic engineering. My first mentor is Dr. Jacob Leachman. As my guide into the world of cryogenics, Jake has been critical in building my foundation as an engineer. He has given me the tools to approach problems with a mindset of innovation that tackles the root issues of cryogenic-related challenges being posed. Furthermore, he has created an environment within the HYPER Lab in which I can explore my capabilities as a young professional but still receive the necessary feedback to continually improve. I have also been fortunate to have been mentored under Peter Bradley from the material measurements laboratory of NIST.

My current company/position: Since meeting Dr. Leachman, I have been with the HYPER Lab having now transitioned from undergraduate to full-time graduate research assistant.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: My general contributions to the field of cryogenics have been in the mechanical testing of 3D-printed polymer nanocomposites in liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen. I have accomplished this specifically through the development of the Cryogenic Accelerated Fatigue Tester (CRAFT)—the first cryogenically rated load frame system constructed by an academic institution. The tester is capable of high frequency fatigue tests, as well tension, compression and dynamic mechanical analysis.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? For me, I believe the development of new cryogenically rated composite materials is key to addressing the common cost-to-weight ratio problem that greatly inhibits widened access to public spaceflight. My work at the HYPER Lab has been specifically tailored to addressing this issue by broadening our understanding of the cryogenic response of 3D-printed materials at liquid hydrogen temperatures.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? The greatest advancement in cryogenic-related technologies is the public access to space flights at costs rivaling that of a common plane ticket. While a huge task, I believe the advancement of cryogenically rated materials will be critical to this task. I believe this will be widely available in the next 30-40 years.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? I can be found on the HYPER website at:

Carl-BungeCarl Bunge, 26
My educational and professional background: I am currently finishing my doctoral thesis at Washington State University.

How I got into cryogenics: Having experimentally advanced the Heisenberg Vortex Tube from a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 1/2 to 5/6 thanks to a NASA space technology research fellowship, I have since developed a cryogenic in-situ Raman spectroscopy system able to sample orthohydrogen-parahydrogen ratios within ±2% with support from the Department of Energy.

My mentor and my experience with them: My advisor is “Cool Fuel” columnist, Dr. Jacob Leachman.

My current company/position: I’m part of WSU’s HYPER Lab led by Dr. Leachman.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: My systems have been tested within the Cryo-catalysis Hydrogen Experiment Facility (CHEF) which I rebuilt per safety standards to achieve a 124 bar max working pressure and 0.5kgH2/day liquefaction rate to test various orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysts. This redesign has enabled 46 consecutive batch-type tests over the previous nine months without any unplanned convective thermal contraction differentials (cold leaks), something I couldn’t fathom after searching to find the source of such a phenomenon in a previous design during my first year as a graduate student.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? I’m looking forward to a happy hydrogen future where its liquid form is ubiquitous and its boiloff is minimized.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? More information can be found at,, or my Twitter®, @CarlBunge

Xiao-SunXiao Sun, 26
My educational and professional background: I received my bachelor’s degree in energy and environmental systems engineering from Zhejiang University in 2015. After that, I continued to pursue my PhD in refrigeration and cryogenic engineering at the same university.

How I got into cryogenics: As a sophomore, I participated in the “Cool Week” event organized by the Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics of Zhejiang University and visited their laboratory. I was attracted to cryopreservation and various refrigerators and cryocoolers, but I knew very little about cryogenics. At that time, I met Professor Zhihua Gan who later became my mentor for the Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Competition. During the competition, his graduate students and I built a cascade pulse tube cryocooler capable of energy recovery. We won first prize in the school and the third prize in the country, which encouraged me to continue in this field. After earning my bachelor’s degree, I joined Professor Gan’s research group as a doctoral student. My research interest shifted from cryocoolers to cryogenic pulsating heat pipes.

My mentor and my experience with them: My advisor is Professor Gan, and my co-advisor is CSA’s president, Professor John Pfotenhauer. I am fortunate to be able to conduct research under their guidance. Professor Gan is very supportive and trusting; he encouraged and funded my participation in academic conferences. He is not only concerned about the progress of students’ research, but also about their lives, health and career planning. I am impressed by his experience in cryocoolers and his passion for teaching, and his hard work always inspires me.

Professor Pfotenhauer is a faculty member at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and a guest professor at Zhejiang University. When he is not in China, we have weekly video meetings to discuss research progress and issues. He is very patient and knowledgeable and can answer many of my thermodynamic questions. In September 2019, I started a one-year visit to his laboratory where he taught me laboratory skills—his hands-on ability surprised me!

My current company/position: I am a PhD student at the Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, and am currently on a one-year visit to the department of mechanical engineering at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: My research mainly focuses on an efficient heat transfer device at cryogenic temperatures a pulsating heat pipe (PHP). Its thermal conductivity is several orders of magnitude higher than that of copper. It’s not currently widely used in the industry because there are no simple and feasible design standards due to the complex oscillating two-phase flow. The experimental data of cryogenic PHP is not enough to reveal its working mechanism. My research started with experimentally studying the thermal performance of cryogenic PHP under different geometric and operating parameters. Hydrogen was used as the working fluid. Some rules were summarized from the experimental results: 1) The length of PHP is increased by three times, and the thermal resistance is only increased by 1.3 times. 2) The liquid filling ratio of cryogenic PHP changes with the increase of heat load. The changing trend can be illustrated on the T-v diagram. 3) There are different optimal filling ratios under different heat loads. At the same time, a one-dimensional model for simulating the internal flow pattern and thermal performance of cryogenic PHP was established. This is the first model specifically designed for cryogenic PHP that considers the non-ideality of the cryogenic gas. I am currently improving the model to be able to simulate experimental results more accurately—I hope it provides some support for designing cryogenic PHP in the future.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? The maturation and application of high temperature superconductivity, cryocoolers with large cooling capacity, whole-body cryopreservation and commercial space travel. I think there is still a long way to go, but I hope I can see some of these developments in my lifetime.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? My projects and publications are accessible on Research Gate.

Greg-WallaceGreg Wallace, 27
My educational and professional background: I graduated from Washington State University with a BS in mechanical engineering in 2017. I stuck around and am now working on my master’s degree.

How I got into cryogenics: I was interested in hydrogen vehicles from a young age. So, when I stumbled upon WSU’s HYPER Lab, I was immediately interested.

My current company/position: I am currently working as a graduate researcher at WSU while studying for my masters.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: My masters research has focused on decreasing the boiloff rate of liquid hydrogen tanks by utilizing a catalyzed parahydrogen-to-orthohydrogen reaction inside a vortex tube (sometimes called a Heisenberg Vortex Tube). My particular focuses have been in numerically predicting performance and in developing an economic analysis.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? Among the biggest limitations to cryogenic research is the equipment cost. So, any tech that makes equipment common will make research easier. In this vein, the fueling of hydrogen vehicles could be a huge catalyst; the fuel can be transported as a liquid and the vehicles themselves can store it as a liquid or a compressed gas. Other important developments might include cryogenic polymers and high temperature superconductors (HTS) leading the consumer cryogenic demand. Perhaps in my lifetime we will be able to buy liquid hydrogen as a welding fuel from supply shops as easily as we can buy liquid nitrogen for shielding.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? I don’t promote myself on social media, but my research lab’s website is:

Sahil-JaggaSahil Jagga, 29
My educational and professional background: After completing DCRUST’s bachelor of mechanical engineering program (Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram Uni-versity of Science and Technology in Murthal, India), I received my masters in thermal and fluid engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Bombay. For my PhD, I joined the Applied Thermal Sciences group led by Srinivas Vanapalli which is part of the energy, materials and systems cluster at the University of Twente, Netherlands. My PhD promotor is professor Marcel ter Brake. During my PhD, I worked on studying the cooling dynamics of thermal quenching in cryopreservation.

How I got into cryogenics: Like many, I was very much intrigued by the usage of cryosleep chambers for hibernation into deep space as shown in sci-fi movies. However, my first experience with cryogenics was during my masters at IIT Bombay in India, where, while attending a course on cryogenic engineering, I became fascinated by its real-life applications—especially in the field of space and life sciences. Following this, I pursued my master thesis under the supervision of Professor Milind Atrey at the Cryogenic Engineering Lab, IIT Bombay. I designed and developed a single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler, which was intended to help testing infrared sensors at the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

My mentor and my experience with them: I consider myself fortunate to have many people in my life who have helped me both professionally and personally to grow as an individual. Out of all those people, I would like to point out one person who has a significant contribution in shaping my career in the field of cryogenics. Srinivas Vanapalli was my mentor for my PhD. He has helped me a lot in bringing out the researcher within; helping me to sketch out the big picture of my work with the golden question asked: “How does it help the community?” Working together with him was a great experience, where I was always encouraged to take ownership of my work and present it to the community for insight and feedback.

My current company/position: The University of Twente. I am concluding my PhD thesis titled, “Cooling dynamics in thermal quenching for cryopreservation.”

My contributions to the cryogenic field: I would like to list two main contributions to the cryogenic field:
1. Interplay of material and liquid properties in thermal quenching in a liquid pool.
In one of the classical cryogenic findings, it was shown that the low conductive coatings on a metallic surface increase its cooling rate when immersed in a liquid cryogen pool. In my thesis, starting from understanding the heat transfer mechanisms of low conductive materials in a liquid nitrogen pool, a quantitative model is being developed to predict the cooldown of plastic slabs in a liquid nitro-
gen pool. Following this, a heat transfer model to predict the cooldown of metals coated with low conductive epoxy in a liquid nitrogen pool is also being developed, which is a useful tool for application engineers to choose the best coating material and its thickness to obtain a fast cooldown.

2. Tissue snap-freezing with a cryocooler powered device. [Cold Facts Vol. 35, No 3]
A tissue snap-freezer was developed at the University of Twente which operates on electricity and is cooled using a pulse tube cryocooler. The cooling principle is essentially heat transfer from a vial containing a tissue through a gas gap to a precooled surface. The gas gap may either be filled by a static contact gas or is subjected to a flow. My contribution is in developing a transient heat transfer mathematical model predicting the cooldown of the vial in the snap-freezer. It was shown that in small gas gap sizes of the order of 0.2 mm, the flow of contact gas has a minimal additive effect on the heat transfer rate; this is a counterintu-
itive result as one would expect a ‘wind chill’ effect with the flow. However, due to a narrow gas gap size, the diffusive heat transfer dominates the advective part.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? I am very happy to see some key developments happening in the field of life sciences enabling the design of effective drugs and personalized treatments for diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. One of the recent developments that I came across is an automated VitroJet machine by a startup from the Netherlands called “CryoSol.” The automated VitroJet is developed to overcome the limitations associated with the manual sample preparation for the cryo-EM to provide maximum control and reproducibility over sample preparation for single particle analysis; this will enhance the quality of the frozen biological samples, allowing high-quality imaging and reconstruction of the sample. The high-quality images of the samples will help gain a better understanding of macromolecular nanomachinery inside human cells and their pathogens. My PhD work was also aimed to facilitate the study of the effect of freezing conditions on the various molecular processes in the samples, thus enabling personalized tissue workflow for molecular diagnosis.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? I am very eager to see some advancements in understanding the boiling characteristics of cryogenic liquids, especially related to the spray cooling of objects. In doing so, the study must include the surface and thermal properties of the materials to be cooled. This would be very helpful in improving the workflow for many applications, such as cryogenic machining, food freezing, cell and tissue vitrification, etc. It’s difficult to put a number on the time frame as it totally depends upon the number of resources being assigned in doing the research. However, it definitely requires people with a strength in both thermal and fluid sciences.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? For my publications, you can follow me on Google® Scholar. To follow my updates, you can also find me on LinkedIn®

Dhananjay-(DJ)-RavikumarDhananjay (DJ) Ravikumar, 30
My educational and professional background: From 2007-2011, I was quite the naïve undergrad and ended up getting my bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering at SASTRA University, Tamil Nadu, India. For my graduate degree, I went to the University of Glasgow and studied theoretical physics for a year and received my master’s degree in 2012. I then applied to several graduate programs and was accepted into Stony Brook with Brookhaven nearby.

How I got into cryogenics: At Stony Brook, I reached out to a professor who also worked in the accelerator division at Brookhaven. He seemed very enthusiastic to have me do my PhD research at the lab and introduced me to the chief mechanical engineer in the accelerator division. Since I had been clear about doing a PhD in the thermal and fluid sciences, they were describing problems they had involving an isotope producer/heat transfer problem related to water-cooled targets. Sensing my somewhat dimmed enthusiasm—the professor interjected to say, “Wouldn’t you like to do something exciting for your PhD? We have this whole new electron–ion collider we are in the design process of but the only serious thermal problems we have related to that are in cryogenics?” I was hooked the moment they said “electron-ion collider.” Cryogenics was all rather new to me and since I knew it surely had thermal and fluid flow problems to deal with, I said, “Yes.”

My mentor and my experience with them: At the end of the meeting, when it was decided that I would be working on cryogenics for the electron-ion collider, the next clear order of business was to introduce me to the head of the cryogenics division, Roberto Than. He has been instrumental to say the least, educating me in the field of cryogenics with his decades of experience and Jedi-like engineering skills. My current mentor, John Brisson, is teaching me how to anticipate problems, define them and present them in a favorable way such that it might lead to good ideas. I am being exposed to a whole new world of milli-Kelvin cryogenics which is all rather new and incredibly exciting to me. I have also had the opportunity to work with Hans Quack over the past several months in the SPARC project and have really enjoyed working with and learning from him.

My current company/position: I am a cryogenic research engineer in the Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As I understand, this is an academic appointment at the institute where I will hopefully, under John’s tutelage, come up with ideas, write grant applications (and hopefully get funded for some of them), get a research program going and have graduate students involved. I have also been the lead engineer on the cryoplant for the SPARC tokamak in this position.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: Quiet helium source for superfluid helium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) systems. SRF cavities are metal structures in accelerators that accelerate or deflect charged particle beams. These cavities are precisely tuned in shape to operate at a particular frequency. Therefore, vibrations adversely affect the cavity’s performance—the mechanical stimulus generates undesired electrical responses in the cavity. Since this is the principle of operation for a microphone, this effect is termed “microphonics.” As it turns out, the flow of helium into the system also contributes to this phenomenon—the reason being that helium enters the two-phase regime contributing to a slug flow type situation. I came up with a design for a system that can completely eliminate flow-induced microphonics for superfluid helium cryogenic systems that cool SRF cavities. I have also led the development of the specification of the SPARC Cryoplant through the better part of 2020. I designed novel, relatively compact and thermally simple cryogenic systems to cool the SPARC toroidal field coils.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? Cryogenics for quantum computing, cryogenic materials and turboexpanders for large-scale cryogenic systems, manufacturing processes for large-scale cryogenic heat exchangers, fundamental property measurements and space cryogenics.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? A cryogenic system that does not drive the quantum computing community to room temperature approaches. The sooner this happens, the better; hopefully about five years. Also, I think possible applications of AI or machine learning may tie into the materials research or could be used for large-scale optimization problems. I guess about 10 years.

Ian-RichardsonIan Richardson, 31
My educational and professional background: I received a BS in mechanical engineering from Washington State University (WSU) in 2011 and a PhD in material science and engineering also from WSU in 2017 with my thesis, “Characterizing Dissolved Gases in Cryogenic Liquid Fuels.”

How I got into cryogenics: During my senior year of my BSME in 2010 I started working in the newly formed HYPER Laboratory at WSU. This was my first introduction to academic research, and it led to a career in cryogenics.

My mentor and my experience with them: Professor Jacob Leachman. I have worked with Professor Leachman for the past 10 years. He gave me the fundamental understanding of cryogenics and the confidence to innovate and build upon prior work to create new, novel experimental systems.

My current company/position: I am currently CEO of The Protium Company and a postdoctoral research associate at WSU. I founded The Protium Company with two colleagues and HYPER Lab alumni to commercialize technology we had developed during our graduate studies. Protium specializes in liquid hydrogen storage and fueling technologies.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: After developing the equation of state for deuterium, I retrofitted a magnetic suspension densimeter to conduct high-accuracy density measurements of cryogenic liquids. This led to me receiving a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship, where I conducted liquid density measurements of hydrogen-helium mixtures to simulate the conditions in liquid hydrogen rocket propellant tanks and methane-ethane-nitrogen mixture density measurements to simulate the seas of Saturn’s moon Titan. I later retrofitted that cryostat to conduct effervescence measurements of methane-ethane-nitrogen mixtures to determine the heat loads which would cause nitrogen to come out of solution to simulate conditions for NASA’s Titan submarine concept. Since then, I have led a team of students in the design of a containerized liquid hydrogen fueling station to refuel liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for hydrogen power aircrafts. I also cofounded The Protium Company to commercialize a novel cryogenic storage tank with an integrated heat exchanger. This tank design allows for the boiloff rate of the cryogen to be engineered which is especially critical for hydrogen vehicle applications such as aircraft or maritime vessels which have relatively constant fuel consumption rates. Protium is also commercializing the liquid hydrogen fueling station to enable liquid hydrogen refueling in remote locations.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? Superconducting technologies offer game-changing performance increases in many fields.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? Fuel depots in orbit, on the moon and/or on Mars to accelerate humanity’s exploration of the solar system. There are a lot of very smart people actively working on this challenge. With the right support, they will be able to achieve this by 2030.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? You can find more information about my work at and

Ernesto-BosqueErnesto Bosque, 34
My educational and professional background: I received my undergraduate degree and PhD in mechanical engineering from the Florida A&M University–Florida State University (FAMU-FSU) college of engineering in 2008 and 2014, respectively.

How I got into cryogenics: After receiving my BS degree, I was welcomed into the Cryolab within the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL, CSA CSM) as a PhD candidate. Through my undergraduate junior and senior years, I developed an affinity to thermal fluids—the extreme version of this field was quite evocative.

My mentor and my experience with them: After I earned my doctorate, Dr. Van Sciver gave me the opportunity to work on a variety of projects within the lab. Ultimately, I must credit my experience in the Cryolab for my experimentalist training. Moreover, Dr. Van Sciver taught me to see the big picture, in addition to the finer details.

My current company/position: I currently am a research faculty member within the Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC department of the NHMFL). I work with Ulf Trociewitz and the ASC high temperature superconductor coils group developing Bi-2212 magnet technology. Recently, I have also taken on technology management of the insulated ReBCO Technology for the MagLab’s 40 T project.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: My dissertation focused on the heat transfer resultant from a catastrophic loss of an isolation vacuum. The work studied the energy transfer of a room temperature gas depositing on a cryocooled surface and the heat transfer into a bath of He II—and the many modes therein. This work provided a one-dimensional understanding of the vapor freezing process but also quantified the rapid heat transfer limits of He II. More recently, my career has taken me into the field of superconductivity and magnet technology, wherein the application of cryogenics is a critical step in making these next generation magnet systems function. As we face a very limited supply of helium, I see my work in magnet stability of critical importance.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? As helium becomes more and more difficult to obtain, cryogen-free magnet systems are becoming highly desirable. I believe the advancements in cryocoolers are shaping our future ability to run and maintain superconducting systems. Though the magnet R&D field is prone to pushing limits, conservation during experimentation is a must.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? Further into the future, I certainly envision the use of clever heat transfer techniques to adequately cool HTS magnet systems. I imagine that these efforts will become far more relevant in a five- or ten-year timeline.

Where can readers find out more about your projects: The NHMFL website is an excellent site to learn about magnet technology. I am closely involved with Bi2212 technology and am now leading the Insulated ReBCO effort under the Maglab’s 40 T project.

Tabitha-SebastinoTabitha Sebastino, 38
My educational and professional background: I studied at Mansfield University in Pennsylvania and held a variety of customer service and administrative roles before joining the Cryomech (CSA CSM) team.

How I got into cryogenics: My initial role at Cryomech was in customer service and was strictly administrative, mostly supporting engineers. I quickly realized that in order to provide the ultimate customer experience, you must build true relationships with the people using your products beyond a normal vendor/customer engagement. Their science is their passion, and if I wanted to be viewed as a true collaborator, I had to understand and share their excitement in the technology. This drove me to learn as much as possible about cryogenics. Today, I’m not just interacting with the cryogenic portion of applications, but also the peripheral technologies and future markets. I learn something new every day!

My mentor and my experience with them: Peter Gifford was an amazing mentor to me and pushed me towards an open, optimistic and exploratory mindset. Peter’s dynamic personality could get you excited about just about anything (even if you tried to resist or it took you some time to catch on). This philosophy guides me today as a leader. Being negative or creating barriers around how something might not work only limits the opportunities that will come your way. Sometimes the greatest success is found in the place you deemed unachievable in the beginning; you must be willing to step forward even if the path is undefined.

My current company/position: My current role is sales/customer service manager at Cryomech. I support the teams that are responsible for marketing, public relations, sales, customer management and order processing for our organization. I also serve as a member of our senior leadership team and oversee our ISO 9001-2015 compliance program.

My contributions to the cryogenic field: For the last 15 years, I have been fortunate to play a small part within a larger team that continues to be a pioneer in cryocooler and low temperature technologies. I see my role in the grand landscape of cryogenics to be in connecting people to solve problems. In a customer facing position, my job is to listen to the scientific challenge at hand and guide towards a solution, even if the final deliverable is not a Cryomech product. One of the things I love about the cryogenic community is that there exists a vast array of individuals who feel the same way. The goal is not just to sell a device, but to bring individuals together who are the experts in their respective fields. In doing this, we collaboratively have a greater impact on the scientific community at large.

What are the most important developments in cryogenics? I have an obvious bias towards the development of small scale cryocoolers for conductive cooling. Dry solutions are not only more sustainable and reduce peripheral supply chain risks associated with liquid cryogens, but they also offer the user a greater range of cooling options. Additionally, superconducting technologies continue to grow and expand applications in so many fields, such as medicine, nuclear fusion and supercomputing beyond what was ever imagined before.

What advances do you hope to see in the future? I think the future of cryogenics comes out of the lab; or at least takes more significant steps towards the public domain. Emerging applications such as quantum computing, hydrogen fuel cells and fault current limiters will put cryogenics in the hands of a broader user base. All of us as consumers expect more in terms of ease of interface and rapid data collection (think of how often you use a search engine on a smart phone in your day). This groundswell of efficiency will continue to push those of us in cryogenics and the development of cryogenic devices towards an elevated user experience.

Where can readers find out more about your projects? You can connect with both Cryomech and me on LinkedIn, follow Cryomech on Facebook and Instagram or visit our website ■