Nuclear Physics

Al Zeller National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab (NSCL) at Michigan State University Cryogenics has a long history in nuclear physics. The technology has its origins in the use of cold traps for maintaining a vacuum, which is required to prevent beam loss and for generating high voltages used in acceleration. These traps are still used … Continue reading Nuclear Physics

Wind Tunnels

Dr. Robert Kilgore The development of the cryogenic wind tunnel is one of many significant breakthroughs in both cryogenics and wind-tunnel technology made during the past millennium. Interest in the development of high-speed commercial and military aircraft resulted in a review of problems of flow simulation in transonic wind tunnels during the 1950s and 60s. … Continue reading Wind Tunnels


From the Winter 2004 issue of Cold Facts magazine The recent M-Calc IV — 4th Industry Assessment workshop discussing military and commercial applications for low-cost cryocoolers, held in November in San Diego, highlighted progress being made in cryogenics as applied in telecommunications. The reliability and long lifetime of projects now being introduced are extraordinary, making … Continue reading Telecommunications

Shrink Fitting

Robin A. Rhodes Cryogenic Institute of New England, Inc. Shrink fitting, (or "compression fitting" as it is sometimes called), is a method used to insert a pin or bushing into a housing or other assembly requiring an extremely tight tolerance fit. It can be used as an alternative to conventional press fitting, or more … Continue reading Shrink Fitting

Primary Standards

Elie K. Track Hypres, Inc. Primary standards involve the exact definition and realization of units of measurement for various quantities, time, length, mass, voltage, resistance, current, etc. International agreements based on the latest scientific knowledge define those units, and their realizations vary depending on the unit itself. For example, the standard unit of … Continue reading Primary Standards

Food Processing

Cryogenics and Food The industrial gas industry provides a host of products and services related to food. The various gases have useful and sometimes fascinating applications in food industry. “The food industry is not a homogenous industry. The needs of customers processing hamburger vs. poultry vs. strawberries vs. seafood, for example, are very different,” according … Continue reading Food Processing