Air Separation and Liquefaction

by Nils Tellier, PE, President, EPSIM Corporation (CSA CSM) All illustrations courtesy EPSIM Corporation Background History of Air Separation and Liquefaction This section builds on a rich history of methods to develop deep refrigeration and cryogenic liquefaction during the 19th Century. You are encouraged to read Cryo Central’s History of Cryogenics for more information. … Continue reading Air Separation and Liquefaction

Cryogenic Finishing

The following 3 articles discuss the uses and procedures of various type of cryogenic finishing. 1) By Robin A. Rhodes, Cryogenic Institute of New England, Inc. Cryogenic Deflashing is employed to remove undesired residual mold flash that remains on molded parts after they are removed or ejected from the mold cavity. Typically, this flash … Continue reading Cryogenic Finishing


From “Superconductivity: Present and Future Applications” by the Coalition for the Commercial Application of Superconductors. Particle physics uses accelerators to recreate the conditions of the early universe in an attempt to piece together the complex puzzle of how we got to where we are today. These huge machines are used to accelerate particles to very … Continue reading Magnets

Energy Storage

From "Superconductivity: Present and Future Applications" by the Coalition for the Commercial Application of Superconductors. With power lines increasingly congested and prone to instability, strategic injection of brief bursts of real power can play a crucial role in maintaining grid reliability. Small-scale Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) systems, based on low-temperature superconductors, have been in … Continue reading Energy Storage


ASTRONOMY IN SPACE by Peter V. Mason, retired,  Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Visiting Associate, California Institute of Technology. In thinking about the reasons to perform astronomy in space, we first consider the effect of the earth’s atmosphere.  On a scale of decreasing energy, gamma rays, cosmic rays, X-rays and the ultraviolet are so energetic … Continue reading Astronomy


What is a Cryocooler? A mechanism that can extract heat from an object (cooler) and by doing so draw its temperature down below approximately 150 Kelvin (cryo). -- (Courtesy Dr. Willy Gully) What is the difference between a Cryocooler and a Cryostat? A cryostat is any device designed to maintain things (including fluids) at cryogenic … Continue reading Cryocoolers

Cryogenic Electronics

Randall Kirschman, consulting physicist, Mountain View, California Cryogenic electronics—the operation of electronic devices, circuits, and systems at cryogenic temperatures—has been a valuable technology for decades. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics, or cold electronics) can be based on semiconductive devices, on superconductive devices, or on a combination of the two; however, the … Continue reading Cryogenic Electronics

Particle Physics: High Energy Physics

Cryogenics and High-Energy Physics 1. From symmetry magazine: Cryogenics is the study of how materials behave at temperatures near absolute zero. In high-energy particle accelerators, such frigid temperatures reduce the electrical resistance of wires in superconducting magnets, increasing the magnet strength and allowing faster particle acceleration. The same holds true for superconducting cavities, cryomodules, … Continue reading Particle Physics: High Energy Physics

Magnetic Levitation

From Magnetic-levitation is an application where superconductors perform extremely well. Transport vehicles such as trains can be made to "float" on strong superconducting magnets, virtually eliminating friction between the train and its tracks. Not only would conventional electromagnets waste much of the electrical energy as heat, they would have to be physically much larger … Continue reading Magnetic Levitation


From Superpower website. History of Superconductivity Superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by the Dutch physicist, Heike Kammerlingh Onnes when he was able to liquefy helium by cooling it to 4 Kelvin, or -452°F. This enabled him to cool other materials close to absolute zero and investigate their electrical properties. He noted that at these cold … Continue reading Superconductivity

Medical Applications of Cryogenics

Neutron Therapy Cryogenics is at the heart of nuclear accelerators. Accelerators such as Fermilab's Tevatron make neutron therapy for cancer possible. From Fermilab Today 4/20/09: Fermilab currently offers neutron therapy. But staff at Fermilab designed and built the proton accelerator used by the nation's first hospital-based treatment center to use protons against cancer cells, Loma … Continue reading Medical Applications of Cryogenics

Nuclear Physics

Al Zeller National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab (NSCL) at Michigan State University Cryogenics has a long history in nuclear physics. The technology has its origins in the use of cold traps for maintaining a vacuum, which is required to prevent beam loss and for generating high voltages used in acceleration. These traps are still used … Continue reading Nuclear Physics

History of Cryogenics

From the Fall 1999 issue of Cold Facts magazine Millennium Breakthroughs A variety of CSA members give different perspectives on the past millennium: What were the most significant breakthroughs in cryogenics during the past millennium? Prof. R.G. Scurlock, Kryos Technology, ("Breakthrough" = way through obstacles — Oxford English Dictionary) Introduction My first response to … Continue reading History of Cryogenics

Cryogenic Insulation

James E. Fesmire Cryogenics Test Laboratory NASA Kennedy Space Center Introduction In today's world, the use of cryogenics and low-temperature refrigeration is taking a more and more significant role. From the food industry, transportation, energy, and medical applications to the Space Shuttle, cryogenic liquids must be stored, handled, and transferred from one point to … Continue reading Cryogenic Insulation

Cryogenic Treatment of Materials

F.J. Diekman Controlled Thermal Processing, Inc. Cryogenic Processing (also called cryogenic treatment, and incorrectly "cryogenic tempering") is a process that uses cryogenic temperatures to modify materials to enhance their performance. Cryogenic Processing involves the slow reduction in temperature of the material to at least -300°F (-185°C) and holding the material at that temperature for … Continue reading Cryogenic Treatment of Materials