The US Department of Energy’s Ames Laboratory has successfully created the first pure, single-crystal sample of a new iron arsenide superconductor, CaKFe4As4, and studies of this material have called into question some long-standing theoretical models of superconductivity.
Tens of thousands of accelerators exist around the world, producing powerful particle beams for the benefit of medical diagnostics, cancer therapy, industrial manufacturing, material analysis, national security and nuclear as well as fundamental particle physics. Particle beams can also be used to produce powerful beams of X-rays.
Sometimes you have to go small to win big. And that's just the approach an interdisciplinary and multi-lab research group took in using nanoparticles and a novel nanoconfinement system to develop a method to change hydrogen storage properties. The team's discovery could enable the creation of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials capable of quick refueling, thus improving the performance of emerging hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles.
At a dusty construction site amid the limestone ridges of Provence, workers scurry around immense slabs of concrete arranged in a ring like a modern-day Stonehenge. It looks like the beginnings of a large commercial power plant, but it is not. The project, called ITER, is an enormous, and enormously complex and costly, physics experiment. But if it succeeds, it could determine the power plants of the future and make an invaluable contribution to reducing planet-warming emissions.
Sumitomo (SHI) Cryogenics of America, Inc. (SCAI) (CSA CSM), has announced its acquisition of Ferran Technology Inc., a leading-edge provider of vacuum measurement and control instrumentation to the micro-electronics manufacturing industries, as well as scientific research and industrial vacuum markets.
A silicon optical switch developed at Sandia National Laboratories is the first to transmit up to 10 gigabits per second of data at temperatures just a few degrees above absolute zero. The device, according to researchers there, could enable data transmission for next-generation superconducting computers that store and process data at cryogenic temperatures.
Scientists at University College London have developed a way to use MRI scans to help identify when HIV is persisting in the brain despite effective drug treatment. The team looked at data from 146 HIV patients who were investigated for cognitive problems between 2011 and 2015. There was evidence that HIV was active in the brain in 22 patients (15 percent), and patients whose brains showed definite signs of change in the white matter were ten times more likely to have HIV in the brain than those with normal white matter appearances.
Nearly a mile below the surface of South Dakota, scientists are preparing the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, or DUNE, a physics experiment that will look at minuscule particles called neutrinos. A beam of neutrinos will travel 800 miles through the Earth from Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (CSA CSM) to the Sanford Underground Research Facility, headed for massive liquid argon detectors that can record traces of the elusive particles.
Japan's KEK, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, has announced a worldwide search for its next Director-General, whose term will begin April 1, 2018, and last for three years.
The science of thermodynamics plays a major role in cryogenics. It underlies the various refrigeration cycles, from Carnot to Brayton (Cold Facts Vol. 32 No. 2) and Joule-Thomson, is a fundamental part of the definition of terms such as coefficient of performance (Cold Facts Vol. 31 No. 1) and even explains why it is more … Continue reading Exergy
Duke University has announced recipients of its 2017 Fritz London Memorial Prize, choosing Jeevak Parpia of Cornell University and William P. Halperin and James A. Sauls, both from Northwestern University.
The use of boiloff calorimetry to measure the effects of thermal energy (or heat) dates back to the early 1900s [1, 2]. Gas flow rates measured in evaporation—or boiloff—calorimetry enable direct calculation of quantities such as heat flux and thermal conductivity. A particularly useful approach is to use nitrogen for the heat measurement fluid as it is readily available, inert and generally safe to use.
Paul Michael Grant was in the room where it happened, and in this essay, he recalls the 1987 APS March Meeting known as the "Woodstock of Physics." It began when Brian Maple, of UC San Diego, took the unprecedented and ambitious step of assembling an “off the program” all night session to discuss the discovery of copper oxide perovskite high temperature superconductors.
CSA celebrates women in cryogenics and superconductivity. In this feature, six women in positions across the industry discuss current projects, how they entered the field and their thoughts on attracting more women to the profession.
Researchers from the University of Adelaide in South Australia have enhanced the Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator, or Sapphire Clock, to allow time measurements with accuracy on the femtosecond scale. The oscillator has a five-centimeter cylinder-shaped sapphire crystal cooled to about -267°C, or about five or six degrees above absolute zero. At this temperature, the microwave energy lost in the sapphire crystal is the lowest of any substance on Earth.
The LHC contains 120 tons of liquid helium kept at 1.9 K. And even with safety systems in place, engineers there prefer to limit underground access when the cryogenic systems are activated. Enter TIM—the Train Inspection Monorail. TIM is a chain of wagons, sensors and cameras that snake along a track bolted to the LHC tunnel’s ceiling.