Sandwiched Graphene Adopts Andreev States

MIT physicists have found that a flake of graphene, when sandwiched between two superconducting materials, can inherit some of those materials’ superconducting qualities. The electronic state of the graphene changes dramatically here, even at its center, as the particles pair up in Andreev states—a fundamental electronic configuration that allows a conventional, nonsuperconducting material to carry an electric “supercurrent" that flows without dissipating energy.

Researchers Develop Circuit Refrigerator for Quantum Computers

Cooling has proven to be a major concern for engineers developing quantum computers, but now a research team at Finland's Aalto University says it has invented a quantum circuit refrigerator that could reduce errors in quantum computing. Quantum computers differ from the computers that we use in that, instead of computing using normal bits, they use quantum bits, or qubits. To obtain correct computational results, every qubit has to be reset at the beginning of the computation. If the qubits are too hot, they cannot be initialized because they are switching between different states too much.

Ball Aerospace Developing Cryostat for GUSTO

NASA has chosen Ball Aerospace to design and build a cryostat for its Galactic/Extragalactic Ultralong Duration Balloon (ULDB) Spectroscopic Terahertz Observatory mission, or GUSTO. The mission, led by the University of Arizona, will measure emissions from the interstellar medium, helping scientists to determine the life cycle of interstellar gas in the Milky Way galaxy. Researchers also hope to witness the formation and destruction of star-forming clouds and to understand the dynamics and gas flow in the vicinity of the center of the galaxy.

Nikkiso Acquires Cryogenic Industries

Nikkiso Co., Ltd. has announced its acquisition of Cryogenic Industries (CSA CSM), a group of product and service companies supporting both liquefaction and separation plants for air gases and small-scale plants for LNG liquefaction. The deal is worth an estimated $440 million and is expected to close in August.

CERN Celebrates Linac 4 Completion

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) celebrated the completion of its Linac 4 during a ceremony on May 9. The new accelerator is expected to allow the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to reach higher luminosity by 2021. The machine is almost 90 meters long, sits 12 meters below the ground and took nearly 10 years to build. Engineers will now begin an extensive test period and hope to connect the instrument to CERN’s accelerator complex over the facility's long technical shutdown in 2019-20.

Pulsating Heat Pipes Hold Promise for Future Space Flight

As space flight missions move away from tanks filled with cryogenic liquids towards cryocoolers to provide cooling for cryogenic payloads, new heat transport technologies are needed to cool distributed systems. Researchers have recently investigated pulsating (or oscillating) heat pipes (PHPs) at laboratories and universities in several countries. Possible applications for PHPs include distributed cooling for optics/detectors for IR systems and distributed cooling for thermal shields on cryofluid tanks.

Boundary-Layer Detection in a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Temperature-Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

For engineers developing and designing new aerospace vehicle concepts, the determination of the transition from laminar flow to turbulent flow on an aerodynamic surface is of vital importance. It can be critical for accurate drag estimation, for example, and there are efforts underway to design wing shapes and vehicle concepts that can delay this transition for drag reduction leading to decreased fuel usage.

Nanoparticles Key to Tissue Preservation

A multidisciplinary research team has discovered a groundbreaking process to cool and rewarm large-scale animal heart valves and blood vessels preserved at very low temperatures. The discovery could result in a major step forward in saving millions of human lives by increasing the availability of organs and tissues for transplantation, according to John Bischof, professor of both mechanical and biomedical engineering at the University of Minnesota, a past president of the Society for Cryobiology and senior author of the group’s study, published in Science Translational Medicine